Saturday, March 14, 2020

From Unity to Diversity Essays

From Unity to Diversity Essays From Unity to Diversity Essay From Unity to Diversity Essay Diane Larsen-Freeman The way to teach in 1965 is not acceptable in 1987, there are three points that can be represented in a triangle for a better comprehension in the methodology used in 1987, each angle of the transgressions a basic area of the field. Language Learning/Language Learner The prevailing view of the language-learning process in 1962 was that learning was achieved through habit formation. The native language was seen to comprise habits that a second-language learner must overcome. Challenging this characterization of he learning process was NOAA Chomsky that argued that language acquisition could not take through habit formation because language was far too complicated to be learned in such a manner, especially given the brief time available. What is especially significant for us was the learning acquiring English as a second or foreign language were found to be committing the same sort of personalization errors as the children. One cannot fall to note that believing language solution as a process of rule formation had tremendous Implication for the role of learners. We see that In 987 learners are seen to be the bears of responsibility for how much learning take place. What changes since Chomsky first propose it, however, is the view that language learning is solely a process of rule formation. The researches like Hatch, while again not denying that grammatical competence Is achieved through linguistic hypothesis testing, nevertheless believe that nonlinguistic processes may be critical to the learner s success In this endeavor. : Hatch specifically discusses the value of native-speaker / nonnative-speaker interaction in which the native speaker adjusts the level of speech to accommodate he nonnative speakers comprehension. We will return to our considerations of learning and the learner when we discuss the impact of these views on language pedagogy. Language/Culture Syllabus design Influenced by structural linguistic, in 1962 language was seen as consisting of hierarchically organized strata, each dealing with a different linguistic structure. Homes, morphemes, and syntactic patterns Syllabi for a languorously were organize around linguistic structures carefully graded In a sequence from simple to likely work on sentence patterns with the BE verb early on, followed a few lessons eater by yes-no question, followed by short answers. The structural, the notional- functional, and the semantic-based syllabi nicely illustrate the fact that language consists of three interacting dimensions: form, function, and meani ng. Many other syllabus types exist these days, of course. One particularly interesting approach is the procedural syllabus, which does not take language as its basis at all. Instead, students learn language through the performance of certain tasks and activities. The grammar is the means through Which linguistic creativity is ultimately achieved and inadequate knowledge of the grammar would lead to a serious limitation on the capacity for communication. Another syllabus, one that has had impact on the teaching SSL in the United States, is competency-based. This type of syllabus has been developed to each survival skills to refuges who are newly arrived immigrants to the United States. The behavioral outcomes of competency-based instruction are specific survival skills. One final language related development that we should not fail to mention is the expanded view of language to injudiciousness or the structure that exists beyond the sentence level. English for special purposes. Another major trend having to do with language during these past 25 years is the teaching of English for Special Purposes (ESP.). Although all language use has a purpose, teachers of ESP. teach only the English requisite for a particular purpose, be it an occupation or a domain. Thus curriculum designers of ESP. courses conduct rigorous needs analyses, analyzing the situation in which students will likely find themselves and carefully selecting the English necessary for students to meet the language demands of these restricted domains. Content-based approach. Content-based approaches see language as a mean of achieving something else and not as and end in itself, in those approaches the learning of language is integrally linked with the learning of some other subject matter. Although various models exist in this approach, some containing explicit instruction in the target language, the assumption is that both the subject matter and the language can be learned together when De students focus is on acquiring subject-matter information. Other models that share this assumption are those providing sheltered English and those that follow the adjunct model. Sheltered English classes are employed to teach English and subject content using specially modified curricula and materials. Culture The second angle of our triangle embraces both language and culture. Many language teachers acknowledge the need to integrate the two; yet I think it is fair to say that there really is no well-articulated theory of culture that has informed our field during the last 25 years and hence that the means of teaching culture to language students have not been well developed. It is true that many texts contain vulture information in the form of cultural capsules. But knowing a culture involves so much more the transmission of information these cultural notes allow. Many applied linguistics who hold thud perspective value the pluralism that exists in the English-speaking world and feel that one can be bilingual without being bacterial, that one can and should learn English for utilitarian purposes without adopting the dominant target culture. Language Teaching/Teacher This article began with our visit to a class in Which the Audio-lingual Method (ALMA) was is still being practiced. However, it is also true that the ALMA fell into disavow in many irises in the sass. His was due in part to the refutation of the habit-formation theory of language acquisition and in part to the fact that both teachers and students often found the required repetition boring and motivating. Silent way. The emphasis on human cognition inspired by the Chomsky revolution led to a new general approach to language teaching termed cognitive code. Rather tan simply being responsible to stimuli in the environment, learners were seen to be much more actively involved in their own learning. Although Caleb Gadgets Silent Way did not involve directly from the cognitive-code approach, its principles are consisted with it. For example, one of the basic tenets of the Silent Way is the subordination of thieving to learning this principle is in accord to the active role ascribed to the learner in the cognitive-code approach. Another distinguish feature is that the teacher helps students to develop a way to learn on their own. By giving students only what they absolutely need by assisting them to develop their own inner criteria, and by remaining silent move of the time, the teacher tries to help students to come self-reliant and increasingly independent of the teacher. Suggestive George Alizarin the originator of Suggestive believes that language learning can be made more efficient than what usually occurs. Teachers can help learners to surmount these barriers and to fully tap their mental powers, by destining the learners self-imposed limitations. This can be done trough the teachers direct and indirect positive suggestion in an environment that is relaxing and therefore conducive to learning. Counseling-learning/community language learning In Curran s Counseling Learning/Community Language Learning method, teachers understand and accept their students fears and concerns. In addition, teachers try to provide a secure learning environment in which a sense of community is fostered. In such an atmosphere, students can be indecisive and their positive energies can be channeled towards the language-learning task. Another way of putting this is toss ay the syllabus is learner-generated. Comprehension Approach Comprehension Approach also acknowledge insecurities have an adverse effect on language acquisition. As a consequence practitioners of this approach do not put students on the stop by having them speak in the target language. The teacher insures that the language that child uses is comprehensible to the students, Just as parents modify the speech they use with their children. Communicative Approach. Communicative Approach assert that students motivation will be enhanced feel that they working on communicative skills. By interacting with their teacher and fellow students, students receive practice in activating this knowledge in negotiating meaning. The soaker receive feedback from the listener on what the listener has understood. Principled eclectics. None of the methods have dominated language-teaching practice to the same extent as the ALMA once did. Moreover, it is rare that one of these methods is practiced exclusively. It is not uncommon for teachers today to practice a principled eclecticism, combining techniques and principles from various methods in a carefully reasoned manner. Goal. The goal of many language teachers today is to operate their students to students how to learn. Process. Learning is seen to be natural, gradual process, through which students progress at their own rates. At first it is to expected that the students will speak or write imperfect English. The necessary practice is thought to be most successful when students are engaged in the meaningful exchange of information, rather than repeating a teachers model. Learners are thus encouraged to be creative and communicative with the language, often doing so in small-group activities, in which they can practice communication and learn from one another. One specific technique connected to the process approach to writing is personal Journal-keeping, in Which students engage in a written Exchange with their teachers. Assessment Procedures Teacher needs the information that informal, ongoing assessment gives to know whether or not lesson, and therefore course, objectives are being achieved. Indeed, when formal evaluation measures are used, they should be designed to be consistent with objectives and therefore what has been taught. Evaluation measures consistent with a communicative approach to teaching will measure how students use English, not what they know about it. Roles The general pattern in modern-day methodology is for the teaching to be learner- centered. I mean that is the teacher who serves as a guide in the learning process, UT it is the learners who assume some responsibility for the direction of the learning and who bear ultimate responsibility for how much learning takes place. Language teaching today is humanistic. There are many definitions of this term, but in this context I mean that teachers are cognizant of the need to take their students affective needs into consideration. It is recognized that students feelings and attitudes can promote or deter language learning. Subject matter The language that is presented to the students should be meaningful and conceptualized. Students should not be asked to Just manipulate linguistic forms. Students should learn to use English accurately; however, they should also be able to use the language appropriate to a given social context. Students need practice in activating their knowledge of vocabulary, structures and language functions. The language syllabi are sometimes built around language structures sometimes functions, and sometimes topics and situations. Domestics syllabus is set in advance; other times it evolves at the course proceeds either on the basis of the teachers Judgment about what to work on next or on the basis of a learner-generated sequence. Sometimes the syllabus is more tasks-oriented than it is language- oriented. CIA will not doubt play an increasingly important role in methodology as the equipment decreases in costs and therefore becomes more accessible and as the viable software matures to a point where computers full interactive potential can be exploited. Conclusion The science of language teaching has boot retched De point of being able to consistently demonstrate the superiority of one methodology over another for all teachers and all crudeness and all settings And perhaps it never will. For teaching is a combination of science and art.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Organization Development and Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

Organization Development and Change - Essay Example (Cummings, T. & Worley, C., 2008) According to the reading, when the OD consultant and Lincoln’s president prepared the contract they stated their expectations of each other and that no steps were to be taken until the OD consultant had interviewed the two parties. I am unsure if the information was insignificant to the issue or not but after this mention of a meeting with the president, another contract or a supplement to the contract stating the steps, ground rules and resources to be spent on the intervention was never mentioned in the reading again. I think this is important in this case especially because a hospital is a very busy workplace. The two participants in the intervention have jobs that demand most of their time, and the intervention would require their time as well to be effective. If these steps were set in the contract, the participants would not be in a position to say no because they are wasting their work time on something that may appear useless to them given their predisposition towards each other. Also, the president would not be interrupting sessions, asking the participants to attend to their tasks, because the hours the OD consultant would need are in the contract he signed. With regard to the diagnosis stage, I also approve of what the OD practitioner did. Interviews were not confined to the two main participants. Since each person was complaining of the other’s personality mostly than the individual’s skills as a nurse and surgeon, respectively, it helped the OD consultant to also ask the people who were exposed to the participants’ personalities and work attitudes. These additional interviews were able to give him a much clearer picture of how other people viewed each participant and enabled him to identify the problem area(s) and define solutions for these. He was also able to strategize on what was the best plan

Monday, February 10, 2020

Delivering Service Excellence Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Delivering Service Excellence - Assignment Example The airlines company is failing to maintain excellence in the services provided in terms of quality and price. The two key aspects of service excellence  which the airlines company requires to give attention to are thus quality and price maintenance. Ryan Airline, the competitors of British Airways is maintaining price and quality leadership for attaining a journey of excellence in the airlines industry. Therefore, to increase the competitiveness, sustain and grow in the business, British airways require elevating the service excellence towards the customers. The paper highlights in details about the shortcomings in the service marketing, recommendations for the same with suitable models and theories to indicate how the airlines company can  improve, and develop a sustainable service strategy.   Service can be described as solutions that are provided to deliver a consistent set of outcomes, performance and deliverables for organization, systems as well as people. Services are intended to satisfy the expectations, motivations and unmet needs of the receivers. The quality of service depends on the effectiveness of the activities of the providers. The performance and experience of a service rest on the way it is produced. A service may be further described as a perishable and intangible component of a business offering or a form of promoting tangible products. The complete methodology to generate awareness, interest, desire and action (AIDA) to ingest services that are offered by the provider is referred to as service marketing (Lin and Hsieh, 2014). Service marketing can be referred to as the subfield of marketing that covers the promotion of goods as well as services. Marketing of goods refers to the promotion of durables and the fast moving consumer good (FMCG). On the other hand, service marketing denotes to the business to business (B2B) and business to consumer (B2C) services (Lin and Hsieh,

Friday, January 31, 2020

Theories used when setting up a new business Essay Example for Free

Theories used when setting up a new business Essay When setting up a new business many business theories have to be considered and thought about. To enable a successful business set up, many features must be pre planned and thought over carefully. These features are such as:   Business plan   Cash flow forecast   Break-even figure   Entrepreneur skills Business reasons why set up the business?   Success how will they succeed in the market?   Finance where will it come from?   Government how can they help?   Setting up how will they set up the business? Who will run the business? All of the above 10 business theories are vital and must be considered and thought out carefully in order for business success. Businesss that start up without consideration of the above are less likely to survive in their market than those who are set up properly with all the above theories planned and worked out. The listed theories will need to be developed and will each contain high levels of detail. It is therefore necessary for me to know exactly what information will be required for when applying these theories to my business proposal planning. Theories Explained: Business Plan: The business for which I am planning and making a proposal for will need a business plan. This will state the company name, where it will be (planned to be) situated, its aims and objectives, what type of business it will be and other important information about the company. Cash Flow Forecast: The business will also need this document which will state a general figure of the estimated figures of the amount of money that will be needed to be spent for various matters for a given time period. This is so that it can be seen when cash will be short so that appropriate loans can be taken. Break-Even: The business will require funding and money invested into it before it can begin trading/operating. For this money to be redeemed the amount spent/invested firstly has to be gained back in the form of revenue. The break even point is when the total amount of revenue equals the total amount of money spent. After this point, the revenue will be profit. Entrepreneur Skills: The entrepreneur creates the business idea, and then hires others to carry out the activity. The may also wish to invest some of their personnel money in hope to gain profit out of the business after establishment. They will need skills to ensure that they make the right plans, and hire the right people/organizations to help them. Any wrong actions taken can lead to failure of the business. Reasons to set up: There has to be some reasons as to why a business should be started. Many people start business because they want to be their own boss, they want full control over everything, they want a fresh start, and they have enough experience and want to run their own business. Success: Before setting up the business, a strategy must be available to help keep the business stable and in the market. Once this is ensured the businessperson needs to make a strategy to help the business succeed in its aims and objectives. Its aims are most likely to be: to survive, break-even, make profit, gain/increase market share etc. Finance: Before the business can start operating it needs some finance. Money will be required to establish the business as well as keep it going. Finance will be required to buy stock, advertise the business, hire staff etc. Also if the business wishes to be a limited company, then the procedure also costs. Usually a bank loan or personnel investment by the businessperson is used however shareholders can also invest into the business. It is vital to know how much money is required to establish the business and keeps it going for a certain period of time so that adequate loans/investments can take place. Government: Sometimes the government can also provide support for a new business. The government may get involved for one of 3 reasons; to control areas of high business congestion, encourage firms to locate in high unemployment areas, or to attract foreign business to UK. The government does this with various schemes such as enterprise zones where taxes are exempt (for a given period) in order to attract business into the area. Setting Up: Before setting up the business the businessperson needs to know and decide how they are going to set up the business. Therefore, they would need a business idea, business plan etc. When setting up they can then either decide to set up on their own by taking a loan or investing their personnel money, or setting up the business with a partner. Running the Business: The businessperson must also understand what is required for running a business. He must have adequate staff, enough money to buy stock and pay staff, enough stock to sell, business/product advertising etc. The businessperson must have enough resources (Land, Labour and Capital) to meet all the above needs to keep the business running smoothly.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijns Self-Portraits Essay -- Painter Painting

The old man sits. His hands are folded nicely in his lap and his facial features stay composed. He wears an overcoat that seems to be a soft velvet, shaded in a reddish-violet hue. Curls peep through the cap on his head, which is pushed slightly back and to the side. His eyes gaze unto those of the observer, telling of his life; the lack of fulfillment, the need for restoration. The color of his face and the cap’s white brim are lit up against a background that nearly engulfs the outline of his body, giving an impression of incompleteness. Although the man’s garment can be seen, it is somewhat hidden amongst the dark colors surrounding. The lines and colors that are so considerably apparent in the creation of the stark whiskers, the distinguished nose and brow, and even the rounded cheeks, disappear in the detail of the body. Although this painting will marvel some, pulling them in as they observe; others will just pass by, thinking, he’s just a man on the wall. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn painted many self-portraits throughout his career, and about forty have survived. In studying these paintings, one will find that a certain growth and development of his style happened throughout his life. For example, in his earlier self-portraits, he used a technique that is called chiaroscuro, which is the use of deep variations of light and shade. In these early paintings, it is hard to tell what Rembrandt looked like because of the shadows covering his face. The later portraits, however, have a softer, more emotional tone. These paintings are the most moving portraits that Rembrandt did. The one described above was done the same year that he died, 1669. The emotions that come with the painting are incredible and as... ...elf-expression. In looking at these different pieces, one can see that the life of this man and where he was, acts as an important reference to his paintings. So the next time you think, oh, he’s just a man on the wall, take time to look, what do you see? Works Cited Bockermuhl, Micheal. Rembrandt. Germany: Taschen, 2000. Koehler, Wilhelm. Rembrandt. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1953. Krent, Emily, and Danie Mary. Paintings by Rembrant.Web Gallery of Art. Web. 12 May 2015. Pescio, Claudio. Masters of Art: Rembrandt and 17th Century Holland. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1995. Pioch, Nicolas. Rembrandt. Web Museum, Paris. Web. 12 May 2015. Mjdehaan. "Virtual Exhibition" Novemeber 2014. Web. 12 May 2015.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Long Jump Essay

It was hypothesized that some characteristics of the positions adopted by long jumpers during the final strides of the approach are significantly related to the distance of the jump,position variables were significantly related to the distance of the jump, through their relationships with the velocity of the approach and the vertical velocity of the CG at takeoff into the jumphe techniques used during the final strides of the approach, the role of elastic energy in the takeoff, the initiation and control of the jumper’s angular momentum, and the techniques used in the landing. This is very unfortunate because the takeoff phase is by far the most critical of the four phases to the success of the performance (Linger, 1980; and Stewart, 1981; Ramey, 1982). Finally, in Stage 4 the jumper learns to coordinate the swinging body segments with the movements previously learned. Each of these distances as well as the total distance jumped is greatly affected by the takeoff variableThe flight distance, which accounts for most of the total distance, is also determined by a number of takeoff variables, the most important being the resultant takeoff velocity. From the discussion above it is clear that in order o maximize flight distance, the takeoff actions must be Even though the landing comes at the end of the jump, the distance attained during this phase is also influenced by the actions performed during the takeoff. Similar to the takeoff distance, the landing distance is also determined by the jumper’s physique and body’s configuration at touchdown. T he optimal configuration at touchdown is one which allows the jumper to maximize distance by extending his/her legs as far as possible in front of the center of mass without falling backward (Dyson, 1977) precisely timed and coordinated

Monday, January 6, 2020

Single Moms - 1820 Words

Running head: Cultural Influence in Development Cultural Influences in Development Fhameka Lewis February 10, 2015 Argosy University Single Moms Single moms face a challenge within their lives. Some mothers become single through divorce and while others become single outside of wedlock. However, there is no set age for a single mom. Statics states that most females become single moms before they finish high school and is receiving some type of government assistance for help. The average single mom has either dropped out of school or working a minimum paying job. Because of the high cost of living rate it is impossible for these single moms to provide a healthy life for their children. Therefore the Department of Human†¦show more content†¦This workshop will be very informative and provide information that will be both beneficial to both parties. The title of the workshop is called Starting over again and will be held on March 18, 2015 during the hours of 8:00 a.m. until 1:00 p.m. at the Community Center in Jefferson County. The doors will be open to all who wish to attend. The workshop will have specialists who will elaborate on such topics such as: The many challenges faced by returning prisoners, What race has to do with it, how incarceration affects the families and children, and The agencies and organizations that are helping families and prisoners reconnect. There will be discussion on other topics as well. However, during the workshop that will be breakout sessions that will be conducted by counselors for those who are interesting in taking up some type of trade or wants to attend school for a higher education. The goal for the Starting over again workshop is to help the incarcerated individual reintegrate back into his or her community. The encounters that one faces when reentering into the world after jailed can be fearful or frightening. According to statistics there is an estimation of about 10 million admissions and releases. The lives of those who reprocess in and out of prison are facing instability. There are a significant amount of problems that they face on a dayShow MoreRelatedLiving With My Single Mom1032 Words   |  5 PagesLiving with my single mom might have played a huge role in the way I perceive men. Seeing my mom focused on her job and me, I feel like a boyfriend isn’t her priority. Making it to where I also believe that I don’t need a man to be happy. Then I visit my day twice a year, and I see him in a happy marriage with his wife of 15 years. I feel this desire to be in a relationship as real and as loving as that one but then I go back to my mom and re alize that I don’t need anyone. 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